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Biathlon


Biathlon

Biathlon is a very popular winter sport in some countries, and this is a combination among cross-country skiing and target shooting. The beginning of this sport are earliest, it's probable this sport began since approximately 2000 B.C. Because a picture of a man was found, who was over long and curved objects, and transported a weapon, that picture was found over rock into a cave.

Another popular variant is summer biathlon, which replaces skiing with running, but the original sport is practiced in winter. In a typical winter race, a Biathlete is necessary to ski with a rifle over a set distance to a shooting range, where five shots at five knockdown targets 50 m down range are taken from prone position.

The means of the biathlon evolved from two activities which have a long history - hunting and winter warfare. However a seemingly unlikely combination of events - one is an aerobic activity which requires strength, speed, and endurance; the other is a passive activity which requires concentration and steady hand.

Championships

Below, we show a list, where there are the major international biathlon events and medalists. Unlike to the Olympics and World Championships (BWCH), the World Cup (BWC) is an entire winter season of (mostly) weekly races, where the medalists are those with the highest sums of World Cup points at the end of the season.
  • Biathlon Olympic Games
  • Biathlon World Championships
  • Biathlon World Cup

Competition format


Individual
The 20 km Individual race (15 km for women) The biathlete shoots four times at any shooting lane, in the order of prone, standing, prone, standing, amount to a total of 20 targets.

Sprint
The sprint is 10 km for men and 7.5 km for women. The biathlete has to shoot twice at any shooting lane, once prone and once standing, for a total of 10 shots.

Pursuit
In a Pursuit, biathletes' starts should are separated by their time differences from a previous race, most commonly a Sprint. The contestant has to cross the finish line first is the winner. The distance required is 12.5 km for men and 10 km for women.

Mass start
In the Mass start, all biathletes start at the same time and the first across the finish line wins. In this 15 km (12.5 km for women) competition, there are four bouts of shooting (two prone, two standing, in that order) with the first shooting bout being at the lane corresponding to your bib (Bib #10 shoots at lane #10 regardless of position in race.) with rest of the shooting bouts being at the lane in the position they arrived (Arrive at the lane in 5th place, you shoot at lane five.). As in Sprint races, competitors must ski one 150 m penalty loop for each miss. Here again, to avoid unwanted congestion, World Cup Mass starts are held with only the 30 top ranking athletes on the start line (half that of the Pursuit since here all contestants start simultaneously).

Relay
The Relay teams consist of four biathletes, who each ski 7.5 km (men) or 6 km (women), with two shooting rounds; one prone, one standing. For each round of five targets there are eight bullets available, though the last three can only be single-loaded manually one at a time from spare round holders or bullets deposited by the competitor into trays or onto the mat at the firing line.

Mixed relay
This is the most recent addition to the number of biathlon competition variants, this format, is similar to the ordinary Relay but for the composition of the teams, each of which consists of two women and two men. Here, legs 1 and 2 are done by the women, legs 3 and 4 by the men. So the legs are 6 km, as in the ordinary women's Relay competition.

Team (obsolete)
All team members start at the same time, then two athletes have to shoot in the prone shooting round, the other two in the standing round. In case of a miss, the two non-shooting biathletes must ski a penalty loop of 150 m.

Biathlon venues
World Cup events and World Championships according to tradition in biathlon have been held at the following few locations. (Due to the complicated shooting range equipment, which absolutely has to work in order to hold successful races, biathlon is the most demanding sport for organisers.)